Multiple regression

Multiple regression designs apply to at least two scenarios.

  • Analyzing a single subject’s data when trials are associated with one or multiple continuous variables.

  • Analyzing group data when subjects are associated with one or multiple individual difference variables.

Here the analysis is illustrated for a simulated dataset from a single subject. Group analysis works analogously, except that each case in the datatset would represent a different subject rather than a different trial.

For such group analysis, it is necessary to reduce each subject’s data to a single case first because multiple regression assumes a fixed effects model. Such designs are described under Two-stage test.

Simulated data

# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number = 2
from eelbrain import *


data = datasets.simulate_erp(snr=0.5)
data.head()
cloze predictability n_chars
0.026139 low 4
0.99529 high 5
0.93062 high 3
0.82404 high 7
0.17041 low 4
0.18508 low 4
0.23345 low 4
0.80784 high 3
0.24979 low 7
0.26753 low 4
NDVars: eeg


The data represents 80 trials from a simulated word reading paradigm, where each word is associated with a word length (n_chars) and predictability (cloze).

p = plot.Scatter('cloze', 'n_chars', data=data, h=3)
sensor lm

Plot the average of each level on n_chars to illustrate the linear increase of the response around 130 ms with n_char.

p = plot.TopoButterfly('eeg', 'n_chars', data=data, t=.130, axh=2, w=6)
sensor lm

Multiple regression

Fit a multiple regression model. Estimate $p$-values using a cluster-based permuatation test, using a cluster-forming threshold of uncorrected $p$=.05 and 10,000 permutations (the default).

lm = testnd.LM('eeg', 'n_chars + cloze', data=data, tstart=0.050, tstop=0.500, pmin=0.05)
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A quick plot suggests an early effect related to n_chars around 130 ms, and a later effect of cloze around 400 ms:

p = plot.TopoButterfly(lm, t=0.130, axh=2, w=6)
sensor lm

Detailed plots of the two effects show that the cluster is quite variable due to noise in the data.

p = plot.TopoArray(lm.masked_parameter_map('n_chars'), t=[0.110, 0.130, 0.150], title='N Chars')
p = plot.TopoArray(lm.masked_parameter_map('cloze'), t=[0.380, 0.400, 0.420], title='Cloze')
  • N Chars
  • Cloze

To access some of the test results we need to know the index of different effects:

('intercept', 'n_chars', 'cloze')

Create a plot that shows the spatial cluster extent across time.

EFFECTS = [
    ('n_chars', (0.110, 0.150)),
    ('cloze', (0.380, 0.420)),
]

t_maps = []
for effect, time in EFFECTS:
    # t-maps are retrieved by effect name
    t = lm.t(effect).mean(time=time)
    # p-maps are stored in a list, so we need to know the index of te effect
    index = lm.effects.index(effect)
    # We are interested in the maximal spatial cluster extent, i.e., any sensor that is part of the cluster at any time
    p = lm.p[index].min(time=time)
    # Create a masked average t map
    t_av = t.mask(p > 0.05)
    t_maps.append(t_av)

p = plot.Topomap(t_maps, ncol=2)
n_chars, cloze

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 59.210 seconds)

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